If one or both of the prospective parents carry a chromosomal abnormality, it may be passed on to a developing fetus and cause pregnancy loss. These abnormalities will not show up in the parents and are only diagnosed by examination of their blood with a test called a karyotype.
These chromosomal abnormalities, typically called translocations, are not correctable but diagnosis of a translocation in one or both prospective parents will allow for genetic counseling and accurate assessment of the chances of having a successful pregnancy.
It’s important to note that a prior successful pregnancy and birth of a healthy child does not eliminate the chance of a parent having a translocation. If any chromosomal abnormalities are discovered, the couple may elect for artificial insemination (if the male has the translocation) or egg donation (if the female has the translocation).
Klinefelter’s syndrome, the presence of an extra X chromosome in the male, is an occasional cause of the absence of sperm production and other reproductive abnormalities. Noonan’s syndrome is more unusual, with the symptoms of short stature, webbed neck, low set ears, and cardiovascular abnormalities. Other less common genetic abnormalities may be associated with male factor infertility.